Vol.No. XLIV 17 November 2000 No.18
(26 Kartika 1922)
This service seeks to provide some necessary information on Child Rights.
RESEARCH, REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION
(Ministry of Information and Broadcasting)
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
India's population is young, comprising nearly 380 million children below the age of 14 years. The status of children, who represent 40% of the 'human capital' of India, not only reflects the quality of life of people in the country. but also measures its Human Development Index. The Government considers the development of children as its key concern and firmly believes that in the ultimate analysis, it is childhood that holds the potential and sets the limits for the future development of society.
Child Rights Day
The need for special safeguards, care and protection for children was first stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924, and recognised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Specialised agencies and international organisations concerned with the welfare of children, too, recognised this in their statutes. International conventional have since been aimed at children's protection and providing the basis for their rights.
The General Assembly proclaimed the Declaration of the Rights of the Child to enable children to enjoy the freedom and the joys of childhood. On 20 November 1959, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Child. The declaration elaborates in detail ten fundamental rights of the child.
The Declaration makes provision for opportunities for all-round development, social security and education of children. It also directs the member-states to shield the children form any kind of discrimination, neglect, cruelty and exploitation. The Declaration condemned and banned child labour.
By order of the Assembly, Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) carries out studies to determines to what extent the principles drawn up in the 1959 Declarations are reflected in domestic legislations of UN Member States.
"Many of the things we need can
The Child cannot.
Right now is the time his bones
are being formed, his blood is
being made and his sense are
To him we cannot answer
his name is "Today".
The Principles embodied in the U.N. Declaration of the Rights of the Child are:
The child shall enjoy all the rights set forth in this Declarations. All Children, without any exception whatsoever, shall be entitled to these rights without discrimination on account of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, whether of himself or of his family.
The child shall enjoy special protection, and shall be given opportunities and facilities, by law and by other means, to enable him to develop physically, mentally, morally, spiritually and socially in a healthy and normal manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity. In the enactment of laws for this purpose the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration.
The child shall be entitled from his birth to a name and a nationality.
The child shall enjoy the benefits of social security. He shall be entitled to grow and develop in health; to this end special care and protection shall be provided both to him and to his mother, including adequate pre-natal and post-natal care. The child shall have the right to adequate nutrition, housing recreation and medical services.
The child who is physically, mentally or socially handicapped shall be given special treatment, education and care required by his particular condition.
The child, for the full and harmonious development of his personality, needs love and understanding. He shall, wherever possible, grow up in the care and under the responsibility of his parents, and in any case in an atmosphere of affection and of moral and material security; a child of tender years shall not, save in exceptional circumstance, be separated from his mother. Society and public authorities shall have the duty to extend particular care to children without a family and to those without adequate means of support..
The child is entitled to receive education, which shall be free and compulsory, at least in the elementary stages. He shall be given an education which will promote his general culture, and enable him on a basis of equal opportunity to develop his abilities, his individual judgement, and his sense of moral and social responsibility, and to became a useful member of society.
The best interest of the child shall be the guiding principle of those responsible for this education and guidance; that responsibility lies in the first place with his parents.
The child shall have full opportunity for play and recreation, which should be directed to the same purposes as education; society and the public authorities shall endeavour to promote the enjoyment of this right.
The child shall in all circumstances be among the first to receive protection and relief.
The child shall be protected against all forms of neglect, cruelty, and exploitation. He shall not be the subject of traffic, in any form.
The child shall not be admitted to employment before an appropriate minimum age; he shall in no case be caused or permitted to engage in any occupation or employment which would prejudice his health or education, or interfere with his physical, mental or moral development.
The child shall be protected from practices which may foster racial, religious and any other form of discrimination. He shall be brought up in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among people, peace and universal brotherhood and in full consciousness that his energy and talents should be devoted to the service of his fellow men.
Our Commitments Towards Children
India's commitment towards children is evident from the Constitutional provisions, including the Directive Principles of State Policy. A number of policy have been adopted especially for children, and a host of welfare and development programmes have been launched. The Government has also enacted legislation to reaffirm its commitment to the causes of child survival, growth and development in all spheres of life. Moreover, over the years, there has also been a massive expansion of administrative machinery and infrastructure for child development.
Schemes and Programmes
The Government of India is implementing more than 120 schemes and programmes for the welfare and development of children and women thorough more than 13 Government Ministries and Departments.
Health and Vital Statistics
41.7 in 1951-61 to 27.2 in 1997.
Female : 40.6 yrs. In 1951-60 to 63.4 yrs. in 1996-2001
Male : 41.9 yrs. In 1951-60 to 62.4 yrs. in 1996-2001
Female : 15.6 yrs. in 1951 to 20.0 yrs in 1992-93
Male : 19.9 yrs. in 1951 to 25.0yrs. in 1992-93
134 in 1946-50 to in 71 1997
Female : 43.3% in 1981 to 25.3% in 1995.
Male : 39.2% in 1981 to 23.2% in 1995.
2000 per 1,00,000 live births in 1943 to
408 per 1,00,000 live birth in 1997.
18,965 PHCs in 1990 to 22,991 in 1998.
16.67% in 1951 to 62% in 1997
62.7% IN 1977-78 TO 39.58% in 1997-98
19.2 million in 1950-51 to 108.8 million in 1997-98
2,09,671 Primary Schools in 1950-51 to 6,10,763 in 1997-98.
5.9% in 1975-79 to 10% in 1988-90.
15.0% in 1975-79 to 8.7% in 1988-90
At the end of the day,
When the sun is
Beginning to lower
There comes a pause
That is known,
The Children's Hour
A Child has only one chance to
Develop, give the child that one,
Chance, that chance to a
"If we do not look after children
today, we will be creating many
more new problems for our
Reference: 1. Children India's Strength.